We defined what a topology is, now we will discuss how to make "new topologies from old": the constructions for "subspace topologies", "quotient topologies" and next week we will look at "product topologies".

Here is a summary of "subspace topologies" and the related "inclusion function" .

Here is a summary for quotient topologies and the related quotient function.

Most importantly,

The summary for product topologies will be posted later